NHRC Full Form | Full Detail

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NHRC Full Form

The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)

NHRC Detail –

The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India was established on 12 October, 1993. The statute under which it is established is the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993 as amended by the Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Act, 2006.It was established in conformity with the Paris Principles, adopted for the promotion and protection of human rights in Paris (October, 1991) and endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations It is the watchdog of human rights in the country, i.e. the rights related to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by Indian Constitution or embodied in the international covenants and enforceable by courts in India. 20 December, 1993.

NHRC विवरण – 

भारत के राष्ट्रीय मानवाधिकार आयोग (NHRC) की स्थापना 12 अक्टूबर, 1993 को हुई थी। जिस क़ानून के तहत इसे स्थापित किया गया है, वह मानवाधिकार संरक्षण अधिनियम (PHRA), 1993 है, जिसे मानवाधिकार संरक्षण (संशोधन) द्वारा संशोधित किया गया है। ) अधिनियम, 2006। यह पेरिस सिद्धांतों के अनुरूप स्थापित किया गया था, पेरिस (अक्टूबर, १९९१) में मानवाधिकारों के प्रचार और संरक्षण के लिए अपनाया गया था और संयुक्त राष्ट्र की महासभा द्वारा अनुमोदित किया गया था। यह मानव अधिकारों का प्रहरी है। देश, यानी भारतीय संविधान द्वारा गारंटीकृत व्यक्ति के जीवन, स्वतंत्रता, समानता और सम्मान से संबंधित अधिकार या अंतरराष्ट्रीय अनुबंधों में शामिल और भारत में अदालतों द्वारा लागू करने योग्य। 20 दिसंबर, 1993।

History of NHRC

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948. Every year Human Rights Day celebrated on 10 December, which is the anniversary of the UDHR. 

NHRC was established in conformity with the Paris Principles, adopted for the promotion and protection of human rights in Paris (October 1991) and endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 20 December 1993.

This act also authorized State Governments to establish the State Human Rights Commission.


Structure of NHRC

NHRC is composed of a Chairman and seven other members. Out of the seven members, three are ex-officio members. The Chairman and members of NHRC are appointed by the President of India on the recommendation of a high-powered committee headed by Prime Minister.Members

a.  Appointment Criteria 

b. Chairman 

c. Retired Chief Justice of India

Member 1-   Retired Judge of Supreme Court of India 

Member 2-  Retired Judge of any High Court of India 

Other Two Members

  • Individuals practical experience in the matters of Human Rights
  •  Ex Officio Members
  • Chairpersons of the below national commissions:
  •  National Commission for Minorities
  • National Commission for Scheduled Castes
  • National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
  • National Commission for Women

Appointment and Removal of Members of NHRC

The Chairman and the members of the NHRC are appointed for 5 years or till the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier. They can only be removed on the charges of misbehavior or incapacity if proved by an inquiry conducted by a Supreme Court Judge.

Functions and Powers of NHRC 

  • NHRC holds the power to investigate grievances related to the violation of human rights either suo moto or after receiving a petition.
  • It has the power to interfere in any judicial proceedings involving any allegation of violation of human rights.
  •  It can visit any jail or other government-controlled facility to see the prisoners’ living conditions and make recommendations on them.
  •  It can review the protections provided for in the constitution or any human rights protection legislation and can recommend effective remedial steps.
  •  NHRC also undertakes and promotes research in the field of human rights. It works to spread human rights literacy among various sections of society and promotes awareness of the safeguards available for the protection of these rights through publications, media, seminars, and other means.
  •  The Commission takes an independent stance while, for the time being, giving advice on the defense of human rights in the constitutional parlance or in the statute.
  • NHRC has the powers of a civil court and can grant interim relief.
  •  It also has the authority to recommend payment of compensation or damages.
  • It can recommend to both the central and state governments to take suitable steps to prevent the violation of Human Rights. 
  •  NHRC submits its annual report to the President of India who causes it to be laid before each House of Parliament.

Limitations of NHRC 

  • NHRC cannot take any action against violation of Human rights by private parties
  • The Recommendations made by the NHRC are not binding.
  • NHRC cannot penalize the authorities that don’t implement its recommended orders.
  • The NHRC has limited jurisdiction over cases related to armed forces
  • The NHRC cannot hold jurisdiction in the

The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human right

The UN has 4 Main Purposes

  • To keep peace throughout the world;
  • To develop friendly relations among nations;
  • To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms;
  • To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.
  • UNO has six official languages, which include Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. At present, it comprises 193 Member States, and its principals and objectives are contained in its founding Charter.

एनएचआरसी का इतिहास 

  • मानवाधिकारों की सार्वभौम घोषणा (यूडीएचआर) को संयुक्त राष्ट्र महासभा द्वारा 10 दिसंबर 1948 को पेरिस में अपनाया गया था। हर साल 10 दिसंबर को मानवाधिकार दिवस मनाया जाता है, जो यूडीएचआर की वर्षगांठ है।
  • NHRC की स्थापना पेरिस सिद्धांतों के अनुरूप की गई थी, जिसे पेरिस (अक्टूबर 1991) में मानवाधिकारों के प्रचार और संरक्षण के लिए अपनाया गया था और 20 दिसंबर 1993 को संयुक्त राष्ट्र की महासभा द्वारा अनुमोदित किया गया था।
  • इस अधिनियम ने राज्य सरकारों को राज्य मानवाधिकार आयोग की स्थापना के लिए भी अधिकृत किया।

एनएचआरसी की संरचना

NHRC एक अध्यक्ष और सात अन्य सदस्यों से बना है। सात सदस्यों में से तीन पदेन सदस्य हैं। NHRC के अध्यक्ष और सदस्यों की नियुक्ति भारत के राष्ट्रपति द्वारा प्रधान मंत्री की अध्यक्षता वाली एक उच्चाधिकार प्राप्त समिति की सिफारिश पर की जाती है। सदस्य

  • ए। नियुक्ति मानदंड
  • बी अध्यक्ष
  • सी। भारत के सेवानिवृत्त मुख्य न्यायाधीश
  • सदस्य 1-   भारत के सर्वोच्च न्यायालय के सेवानिवृत्त न्यायाधीश
  • सदस्य 2-  भारत के किसी भी उच्च न्यायालय के सेवानिवृत्त न्यायाधीश

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